As award-winning leaders in fighting climate change, protecting the environment, and championing social inclusion, drawn from every single sector and segment of the Canadian economy, and from every part of the country, the 210 Clean50 Recipients listed below join together to ask our governments for
A Clean Reset for a Healthy, Just, and Prosperous Canada.
Today, the coronavirus is shaking the world, foreshadowing the overwhelming shocks and strains that the climate crisis will bring during our lifetimes. Never before have we faced such a challenge in peacetime. Families, communities, institutions and businesses are in urgent need, and governments are stepping forward to help, with a torrent of borrowed money.
In addition to struggling with the climate crisis, the biggest health, economic and environmental threat of the 21st century, we will collectively have to pay this money back for generations to come. The great news is that by working together, we can create a healthy, just and prosperous future for all, if we use today’s money well, and invest in a positive future that we can embrace together.
We commend the Federal Government for last week’s commitment to resist calls for cutbacks on environmental regulations, and for investing in both IRAP and oil well clean-up and methane emission reductions – strategies that will help workers get back to work and learn new skills while improving our environment. And there are many more win-win-win opportunities to invest in Canadians, the economy, and the environment.
Putting Health First
Canadians have a lot to gain from the sustainable economy of the future, beyond just a better economy. Putting Health First means cleaner air and water, more physical activity, and more protected natural areas than our old normal. It means clean communities with zero or low-emission vehicles, clean energy, and minimal fossil fuel use. Clean air, healthy food, and better mental and physical health will make us more resilient to this pandemic and to the other uncertainties that are ahead. Several studies show the health benefits alone will be worth twice what the transition costs1.
Despite the tragic circumstances, and the personal sacrifices, we have also seen the direct and immediate benefits of recent “Work From Home” practices, including dramatically lower transportation emissions, significantly shorter commute times, greater productivity, and greater resilience against both weather and health events for individuals and businesses. These must be extended through policy and incentives for businesses to continue these practices, once daycares and workplaces reopen.
Canada’s innovative cleantech sector, working with municipalities, can help make this happen, while building tomorrow’s economy. Major investments in the Green Municipal Fund and the federal Gas Tax Fund, focussed with a strong climate lens, can preserve thousands of valuable clean-economy initiatives that would otherwise be lost in this year’s municipal budget crunch.
Jobs for Lasting Prosperity
Equally important, good-quality jobs for those who want them are key parts of a happy, healthy, and prosperous Canada.
We need to adopt Wayne Gretzky’s winning strategy of skating to where the puck is going, and skate to where the economy is going, not back to our “old normal”. Lasting prosperity depends on respecting the limits of the natural systems on which our lives depend, on building resilience for an unpredictable future, on normalizing sustainability in all decisions, and ensuring a just transition for all. The pandemic has shown us our vulnerability, and the overwhelming speed at which old certainties can evaporate when we don’t respect global limits.
Fortunately, the clean economy offers us a $26 TRILLION business opportunity2, and millions of jobs globally in the next decade. That’s 17.5 times bigger than Canada’s entire 2018 GDP of $1.71 trillion. The CEO of the largest investment firm in the world, with over $6 trillion in assets, Larry Fink, of Blackrock, warns: “…because capital markets pull future risk forward, we will see changes in capital allocation more quickly than we see changes to the climate itself. In the near future – and sooner than most anticipate – there will be a significant reallocation of capital”3. Since Canada needs capital, we must accelerate towards the low-carbon economy now.
Before the COVID crisis, Canada’s cleantech community was well positioned to pursue that $26 trillion opportunity, translating to millions of potential jobs in Canada. However, many of our world-leading clean technology companies are young businesses, with limited reserves, that have suffered significant losses in revenue and expected investments.4 They need help urgently. We ask governments to support these companies, by immediately:
- Expanding funding to BDC, SDTC, EDC, and Western Economic Diversification and regional economic development programs with a mandate to ensure the funds will get deployed
- Topping up existing cleantech venture funds to unlock the capital already invested
- Tasking and enabling the CRA to accelerate processing of SRED claims
- Unlocking private-sector investment as described by the Expert Panel on Sustainable Finance
- Incentivizing Canadian public and private sector organizations to improve their productivity by purchasing Canadian cleantech
- Enabling Canadians to invest their RRSPs into cleantech ventures and funds
Invest in Adaptation: As documented by the UN’s IPCC, and reinforced in Canada’s Changing Climate Report 2019, climate change is irreversible5. Although national efforts to cut greenhouse gas emissions are essential and must continue, a changing climate accompanied by floods, droughts, fires and other extreme events is in our immediate future. In response, to adapt to these new risks and limit the damage to our future economy, we urge support for municipalities and property owners across the country to hire workers to help limit the devastation, by building community-enhancing retaining walls, berms, diversion channels and holding ponds, and a range of protective measures for individual properties, that are needed now, in advance of the next disaster.
All taxation, procurement and investment decisions must be made with a clean-economy lens.
Yesterday’s industries have high costs, and release high amounts of GHGs, whilst leaving our economy, employment, and our currency (and therefore our non-oil trade) subject to prices set by Saudi Arabia and Russia. Non-fossil energy must become tomorrow as pervasive and mainstream as fossil fuels are today. Canada can and should turn to businesses that produce more jobs, and less pollution-per-dollar invested than our “old normal”, and that can be sustained into a low-carbon, low-pollution future, no matter what unpredictable events occur.
The following are some of the most effective ways to transition to a lower-carbon economy that will provide jobs and opportunity in every province, and deliver the biggest health and climate benefits.
We know rapid deployment of all forms of renewable energy is a dependable path to a cleaner future, creates far more jobs-per-dollar invested6, and is already the cheapest way to generate electricity. As but one example, a $1 billion investment dedicated to solar in Canada’s Climate Action Investment Fund would unlock $3 billion in private investment, create 20,000 jobs, and deploy enough solar energy to power ~240,000 residences with 8 cents per kWh electricity for the next 20+ years. Similar results come from investments in energy storage, and wind, hydro and geothermal energy. We ask that the Federal Government provide the Canadian Infrastructure Bank greater flexibility to invest in district renewable-energy projects, and provide incentives for selecting low-carbon-footprint solar panels. We know that distributed renewable energy of all sorts also adds resilience to our homes, businesses, and communities, in preparation for the wilder weather that lies ahead.
Canada already has global leadership in the growing zero and low-emission vehicle industry. More investment into EV manufacturing, charging stations, zero-emission public transit, hydrogen networks and technology now, could create numerous additional jobs immediately – and 1,100,000 jobs plus $150 billion in GDP over the next 20 years7. Energy-efficiency improvements allow families, businesses and public institutions to spend less on energy and more on what matters most. Energy retrofits of existing buildings create large numbers of skilled jobs in every part of the country, plus provide homeowners, tenants and landlords lower operating costs, greater comfort, and better health. Doing those retrofits with wood fibre will create jobs in forestry communities, while sequestering carbon in wood products.
Regenerative agriculture can improve food security, support farming communities, bring back biodiversity and protect lakes and rivers. Similarly, nature-based solutions, particularly in agricultural areas, now offer many of the most cost-effective and job-rich solutions to floods and drought.
SMEs produce 67% of our new employment growth and 200 million tonnes of CO2 annually8. Help SMEs cut their emissions by 20%9 by investing $25 million into delivery of already proven existing training programs focused on helping SMEs transition to lower-carbon practices that will simultaneously make them more productive, resilient and profitable.
Ten years ago, these solutions would have been implausible, but tremendous progress has been made in all sectors, and all of these programs are “shovel-ready” now. Today, a fair and just transition to a clean economy is not just the right choice – it is also the best economic choice for Canada – and one which can immediately put Canadians back to work with the jobs of the future.
Quality of Life
It is more important than ever for Canadians to unite and build a stronger, more inclusive and more resilient country. Canada has the tools, the technology, and the people for a happier, healthier and more prosperous and resilient future.
In light of the pandemic’s shocking reminders of the importance of science and of inspired leadership, we have a once-in-a-lifetime opening to steer our country away from the “old normal”. Today’s enormous investments must ultimately be repaid, so these investments must build a positive future for all of us, and one that delivers the good-quality jobs necessary for us to be able to do so.
We have before us a remarkable opportunity to embrace a healthy, just and prosperous future, together.
It’s time for a Clean Reset. Let’s not waste it.
Signed by the following 210 recipients of Canada’s Clean50 Awards Note: Where any of the 170 organizations’ name appears, it is an indicator of endorsement by the listed organizations.
We urge all Canadians to join us, and support this message, by forwarding this letter to each of their elected representatives via an email, a letter or by way of a telephone call.
We urge all Canadians to join us, and support this message, by forwarding this letter to each of their elected representatives via an email, a letter or by way of a telephone call.
Catherine Abreu: Executive Director – Climate Action Network Canada ** Guy Adam: Vice-President Sustainable Development – Alliance Magnesium Inc. ** Meredith Adler: Executive Director – Student Energy ** Kazi Ahmed: CEO – Betterfrost Technologies Inc. ** Subhi Alsayed: Managing Director – Elements Ventures Accelerator (EVA) ** Mike Andrade: CEO – Morgan Solar ** Dr. Rob Andrews: CEO – Heliolytics ** Brian Astl: President – Lind Equipment ** Celine Bak: President – Analytica Advisors ** Kody Baker: CEO – VeloMetro Mobility ** Helle Bank Jorgensen: CEO – Competent Boards ** Dr. Tima Bansal: Canada Research Chair in Business Sustainability – Ivey Business School ** Mike Battistel: President – Cascadia Windows Ltd. ** Prof. Eric Bauce: Outgoing vice president – Université Laval ** Meaghan Beck: Director, Corporate Responsibility – ** Eric Beckwitt: Founder and CEO – Freightera ** Arnold Bercov: Retired – Former President of The Public and Private Workers of Canada ** Dr. Stephanie Bertels: Associate Professor – Simon Fraser University Beedie School of Business ** Eric Beynon: – Sustainable Growth Co. ** R. Paul Blanchard: Founder & CEO – TEC Recycle International Corporation ** Felix Böck: CEO – ChopValue Manufacturing Ltd. ** Kevin Brady: President – Sustainable Enterprise Consulting ** Dr.Carol-Ann Brown: Vice President, Innovation & Cleantech – The Delphi Group & GLOBE Series ** Tyler Bryant: Low-Carbon Policy and Strategy Manager – FortisBC ** Bryan Buggey: Director – Vancouver Economic Commission ** Peter Busby: Global Design Principal – Perkins + Will Canada ** Malcolm Cameron: Associate – GreenSoil Building Innovation Fund ** Prof. Kai Chan: Professor – University of British Columbia ** Howard Chang: CEO – The Turn Lab Inc. ** Stephen Cheeseman: President & CEO – Chinook Power Corp. ** Cara Clairman: President and CEO – Plug’n Drive ** Carlyle Coutinho: President – Enwave Canada ** John Coyne: Vice-President External Affairs and Sustainability at Unilever Canada and Executive Chair at Canadian Stewardship Services Alliance Inc. – Unilever Canada ** Elyse Crowston: Director of (Impact) Investor Relations – Rhiza Capital ** Jeffrey Cyr: Managing Partner – Raven Indigenous Capital Partners ** Trevor David: Associate Director – Sustainalytics ** James Dean: CEO – Oxygen8 Solutions Inc. ** Dr. Ron Dembo: CEO – riskthinking.ai ** Ron Dizy: Chief Commercial Officer – Spark Power ** David Dodge: President – Green Energy Futures Ltd. ** Frank Dottori: CEO – WRC Timber ** Tyler J. Elm: Chief Sustainability Officer – BlueInGreen LLC ** Dr.Jose Etcheverry: Director – International Renewable Energy Academy ** Karen Farbridge: President – Karen Farbridge & Associates ** Dr. Blair Feltmate: Head – Intact Centre on Climate Adaptation, University of Waterloo ** Ted Ferguson: President – The Delphi Group ** Jim Fonger: Vice President – Distributed Generation – Ameresco Canada ** Dave Fox: Environmental Scientist – Enviro-Stewards ** Aaron Freeman: Principal – Pivot Strategic Consulting Inc. ** Mike Gerbis: CEO – GLOBE Series & The Delphi Group ** Steve Glover: President – Compugen Finance ** Bala Gnanam: VP – Energy, Environment and Advocacy – BOMA Toronto ** Marcus Goodick: President – EnviroCulture Consulting ** Dr. John Grace: Emeritus Professor and Dean – University of British Cloumbia ** Julia Grady: Executive Director – 10C Shared Space (10C) ** Tim Gray: Executive Director – Environmental Defence ** Shannon Harding: Director of Education and Engagement – Clean Foundation ** Jim Harris: – ** Mr. Chris Henderson: President – Lumos Energy ** Brett Henkel: Co-Founder – Svante ** Gordon Hicks: CEO – BGIS ** Lloyd Hipel: Director, Applied Solutions – Enviro-Stewards Inc. ** Cheeying Ho: Executive Director – Whistler Centre for Sustainability ** Charles Hopkins: UNESCO Chair – York University ** Celesa Horvath: – Ventus Development Services Inc. ** David Hughes: President and CEO – The Natural Step Canada ** Alexandru Iordan: Co-founder and CTO – SAF+ Turning-pollution-into-fuels ** Jamie James: Managing Partner – GreenSoil Building Innovation Fund ** Michael Jantzi: CEO – Sustainalytics ** Prof. Philip Jessop: Professor – Queen’s University ** Philip Jessop: Professor and Canada Research Chair – Queen’s University ** Dan Kershaw: Executive Director – Furniture Bank ** Mohamed Khalil: CEO – Pyrocycle ** Soheil Khiavi: President and CTO – Adroitech ** Dr.Patrick Kiely: CEO – Island Water Technologies ** Hilary Kilgour: Board of Directors – Ethelo ** Brent Kopperson: Executive Director – Windfall Centre ** Paul Lacerte: Managing Partner – Raven Indigenous Capital Partners ** Lisa Lafave: Managing Director – Realine Investments ** Trevor Langdon: President – Green Standards Ltd. ** Julia Langer: CEO – The Atmospheric Fund ** Anne-Josée Laquerre: President & Co-founder – Québec Net Positif ** Jean Luc Lavergne: CEO – Lavergne Groupe Inc. ** Denis Leclerc: President and CEO – Écotech Québec ** Steve S.J. Lee: Executive Director – 3% Project ** Peter Leighton: Chief Operating Officer – RE Royalties Ltd. ** Priyanka Lloyd: Executive Director – Green Economy Canada ** Bruce Lourie: President – Ivey Foundation ** Peter Love: President – Love Energy Consultants ** Stephen MacDonald: Chief Executive Officer – EfficiencyOne / Efficiency Nova Scotia ** A. J. (Sandy) Marshall: Executive Director – Bioindustrial Innovation Canada ** Audrey Mascarenhas: President and CEO – Questor Technology Inc ** Dr. Beth Mason: CEO – Verschuren Centre for Sustainability ** Dr. Damon Matthews: Professor and Research Chair – Concordia University ** Peter McArthur: Chair – Ontario Clean Technology Industry Association (OCTIA) ** Murray McCaig: Managing Partner – ArcTern Ventures ** Stephanie McLarty: CEO – REfficient ** Paul Mertes: President & CEO – CircuitMeter Inc. ** Andrée-Lise Méthot: Founder and Managing Partner – Cycle Capital ** Alex Mifflin: – SK Films ** Tyler Mifflin: Managing Director – SK Films ** John Paul Morgan: CTO – Morgan Solar Inc. ** Mike Morrice: – Founder, Sustainable Waterloo Region & Founder, Green Economy Canada ** Glen Murray: Former Minister – Ontario Ministry of Environment and Climate Change ** Elisa Obermann: Executive Director – Marine Renewables Canada ** Steve Oldham: CEO – Carbon Engineering ** Robert Ouellette: Founder, MESH Cities – MESH Cities ** Joseph Pallant: Director of Climate Innovation – Ecotrust Canada ** Nicholas Parker: Chairman – Parker Venture Inc. ** Emily Partington: – Quinn & Partners ** Daniel Pass: Consultant – Quinn & Partners ** Brent Perry: CEO – Sterling PBES Energy Solutions Ltd. ** Sarah Petrevan: Policy Director – Clean Energy Canada ** Simon Pickup: CEO – Hydra Energy ** Gavin Pitchford: Founder & CEO – Delta Management Group ** Dr. Catherine Potvin: – McGill University ** Tony Pringle: Principal and Co-founder – Quinn & Partners ** Joan Prowse: President – CineFocus Canada Inc. ** Grace Quan: CEO – Hydrogen In Motion Inc. (H2M) ** Francisca Quinn: President – Quinn & Partners ** Anvesh Rai: Principal – GreenSoil Building Innovation Fund ** Tom Rand: Managing Partner, ArcTern Ventures – ArcTern Ventures ** Kent Rathwell: Founder/President – Sun Country Highway Ltd. ** William Redelmeier: Owner – Southbrook Organic Vineyard ** Fidel Reijerse: President – RESCo Energy Inc. ** Paul Richardson: Managing Partner – Renewal Funds ** Chris Rider: Executive Director – CPAWS Yukon ** Don Roberts: CEO – Nawitka Capital Advisors Ltd ** Gregor Robertson: – Mayors4Climate, Nexii ** Prof. John Robinson: – Munk School of Global Affairs and Public Policy, and School of the Environment, University of Toronto ** Derek Satnik: – Mindscape Innovations Group Inc. ** Anne-Marie Saulnier: Directrice exécutive et co-fondatrice – ECPAR ** Dr.Beth Savan: Inaugural Sustainability Director – University of Toronto ** Dr. Dianne Saxe: President – Saxefacts ** Alison Schneider: Director, Resposible Investment – Alberta Investment Management Corporation ** Craig Scott: Executive Director – Ecology North ** Dan Seto: COO – CircuitMeter Inc ** Vicky Sharpe: Corporate Director – EfficiencyOne / Efficiency Nova Scotia ** Ken Shea: President and CEO – East Coast Credit Union ** Elizabeth Sheehan: Founder & President – Climate Smart ** Robert Shirkey: Executive Director – Our Horizon ** Nancy Smith Lea: Director, The Centre for Active Transportation – Clean Air Partnership ** Dr.Donald Smith: Distinguished James McGill Professor – McGill University ** Lauren Smith: CEO / Co-Founder – PolyGone Technologies ** Merran Smith: Executive Director – Clean Energy Canada ** Robert Smith: VP, Consulting – GreenSoil Building Innovation Fund ** Jeanette Southwood: Vice President, Corporate Affairs and Strategic Partnerships – Engineers Canada ** Shirley Speakman: Senior Partner – Cycle Capital ** Christie Stephenson: Executive Director – Dhillon Centre for Business Ethics ** Greg Stewart: Managing Partner – GreenSky Capital Inc. ** Coro Strandberg: President – Strandberg Consulting ** Katie Sullivan: Managing Director – IETA ** Tonya Surman: CEO – Centre for Social Innovation ** Bruce Taylor: President – Enviro-Stewards Inc. ** Puninda Thind: The Delphi Group ** Alison Thompson: CEO – Borealis GeoPower ** Jason Tratch: CEO – EcoLibra Systems ** Dr. Peter Tsantrizos: CEO – Terragon ** George Tsintzouras: CEO – Alert Labs ** Miriam Tuerk: CoFounder & CEO – Clear Blue Technologies ** Michael van Aanhout: Chairman – Stratos Inc. ** Dr. Wal van Lierop: Founding Partner and Executive Chairman – Chrysalix Venture Capital ** David Van Seters: President – Sustainability Ventures ** Els Vanbeckevoort: Chief Executive Officer – SanEcoTec Ltd. ** Scott Vaughan: Senior Fellow – International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) ** Heather Watt-Kapitain: Partner – KAP Design ** Doug Webber: Principal – Purpose Building ** Dr. David Wheeler: Principal – Sustainable Transitions ** Andrew White: CEO – CHAR Technologies Ltd. ** Bob Willard: Chief Sustainability Champion and Founder – Sustainability Advantage ** Rodney Wilts: Partner – Theia Partners ** Darcy Wood: CEO – Aki Energy Inc. ** Dan Woynillowicz: Principal – Polaris Strategy + Insight ** Luna Yu: CEO – Genecis Bioindustries Inc. ** Laura Zizzo: Founder and CEO – Mantle314 Inc. ** Katie Allen: Sustainability & Social Impact Manager ** Steve Byrne: Vice President ** Dr. Rupp Carriveau: Professor ** Prof. Sylvain Coulombe: Professor ** Lisa DeMarco: Senior Partner ** Brian Denney: P.Eng. (retired) ** Alexis Esseltine Scoon: Sustainability Manager ** Scott Gillner: Senior Policy Advisor ** Andrew Hejnar: P.Eng ** Marty Janowitz: MES, Corporate VP Sustainable Development, Retired ** Jane Kearns: Vice President ** Ross Keating: Retired ** Diane Kilcoyne: Director, IT Delivery ** Lisa King: Sustainability Practitioner & Urban Planner ** Roxanne Law: Chief Operations Officer ** Jennifer McLaughlin: Senior Manager, Global Environment, Health and Safety ** Ralf Nielsen: Managing Director Advisory and Sustainability Services ** Rosalynn Peschl: Instructor – Entrepreneurship & Innovation ** Carolyn Sedgwick: Director ** Kate Whalen: PhD (cand) ** Shari Austin ** Gordon Beal ** Julia-Maria Becker ** Timothy Bekhuys ** Philippe Bernier ** Lynn Bishop ** Chris Campbell ** Richard Corley ** Dana Decent ** Audrey Dépault ** Lara Ellis ** Miranda Fuller ** Bryan Gilvesy ** Nadine Gudz ** Trina Innes ** Karen Lockridge ** Antony Marcil ** Brian Minns ** Brian Montgomery ** Monica Pohlmann ** Dan Rames ** Serguei Tchertok **
The following additional organizations and their leaders also support the #CleanReset plan:
Shayna Rector Bleeker: Partnerships Manager – 7 Generation Capital ** Anik Dubuc: Vice-présidente Développement durable – Association de l’aluminium du Canada ** Maxime Desjardins: President – Atelier.ad ** Michael Ehling: Innovation & Leadership Consultant – Balance ** Sean Drygas: President – Bullfrog Power ** Maxie Lafleur: CEO – Bus.com ** Robin Edger: Executive Director & CEO – Canadian Association of Physicians for the Environment ** Amir Nosrat: Chair – Climatable ** Lyn Adamson: Co-Chair – ClimateFast ** Pierre Fillion: Président-directeur général | President & CEO – Conseil des industries durables | Council of Sustainable Industries ** Cédric Chaperon: General coordinator – Coop de vélogistique / La roue libre ** Kim Perrotta: Executive Director – Creating Healthy and Sustainable Environments (CHASE) ** Corey Diamond: Executive Director – Efficiency Canada ** Justin Wahid Rangooni: Executive Director – Energy Storage Canada ** Jeanette Jackson: Chief Executive Officer – FORESIGHT Cleantech Accelerator (Western Canada) ** : – The Green Party of Canada, including: ** Jenica Atwin: MP – Fredericton – Green Party of Canada ** Paul Manly: Member of Parliament for Nanaimo-Ladysmith – Green Party of Canada ** Elizabeth May: Officer of the Order of Canada, Parliamentary Leader of the Greens in the House, Member of Parliament, Saanich-Gulf Islands – Green Party of Canada ** Jo-Ann Roberts: Interim Leader – Green Party of Canada ** Arden Henley: Chair of the Board of Directors – Green Technology Education Centre ** Jodie Morgan: CEO – GreenMantra ** Sylvain Cofsky: CEO – Innovitech ** Mia Homsy: Directrice générale – Institut du Québec ** Jérôme Lussier: Associate director – Institut du Québec ** Daniel Normandin: Executive Director – Institute of Environment, Sustainable Development and the Circular Economy ** Lliam Hildebrand: Executive Director – Iron & Earth ** Tracy Casavant: Managing Director, Circular Economy & NISP Canada – Light House Sustainability Society ** Brenda Martens: Managing Director, Research & Collaboration – Light House Sustainability Society ** Joffrey Fuzet: CEO – Livraison Velo Montreal ** Marc-André Mailhot: President and founder – Maillon Vert ** Jeff More: President & CEO – MineSense Technologies ** Maike Althaus: Executive Director – Ontario Clean Technology Industry Association (OCTIA) ** Me. Christiane Pelchat: Présidente-directrice générale – Réseau Environnement ** Nancy Bradshaw: CEO – Spark Strategies ** Karel Mayrand: President – Switch: The Green Economy Alliance ** Elizabeth Gresh: Executive Director – The Gaia Project ** Ian MacLellan: President & CEO – Ubiquity Solar Inc. ** Lucie Bourgeois: Founder & President – Umalia ** Prof. Normand Mousseau: Directeur académique – Université de Montréal/Institut de l’énergie Trottier ** Guy Dauncey: President – Yellow Point Ecological Society